Using the Glossary:
This glossary covers some of the more technical terms and phrases used in this site.
Some of the ingredients and flavourings we use in our products are also listed, particularly where they are less commonly known and need further explanation.
Ameliorants include flavourings such as honey, cocoa, licorice and fruit extracts. They are added to tobacco during processing to balance the flavour. They do not create a sweet, chocolate-like or fruity taste – they blend with tobacco to create a characteristic tobacco taste.
Binders are any materials added to tobacco to help hold the product together.
A Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number (CAS number) is a unique code assigned to many substances and defined mixtures. They are used to unambiguously identify chemicals or compounds that may have more than one common or scientific name. We include CAS numbers on our composite ingredient lists, but some natural compounds and common food items do not have CAS numbers. In these instances you will find the space blank on our lists.
Typically wood fibre, this can be used as a binder when added to tobacco. Cellulose acetate can also be utilised to make the filter used in most cigarettes and some cigars.
Die print ink
A small amount of ink is often applied to a cigarette paper via a letterpress operation to add a distinctive brand mark to a product.
Any liquid that acts as a diluting agent or thinner, a diluent may be added to tobacco during the manufacturing process.
Dry ice expanded tobacco
See listing for Expanded tobacco (below).
This is tobacco that has been puffed-up and expanded, using a process that involves exposure to dry ice. This means that less tobacco is needed to make a cigarette, resulting in a different taste and lower emissions, including of tar, when measured under standard conditions.
Parts of the tobacco plant, such as the stem, which contribute to the bulk of the product without contributing significantly to the odour, taste or flavour.
The white plug made mainly from cellulose acetate on the ends of cigarettes and some cigars. Filters absorb particles in the smoke to reduce delivery of tar and nicotine.
Flavourings such as sugars, cocoa and fruit extracts are added in small quantities late in the manufacturing process. They do not create a sweet, chocolate-like or fruity taste in the smoke, but they blend with tobacco to give brands their distinct flavours and aromas.
Fructose is a simple sugar found in many fruits and vegetables. It is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar and is used as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
A simple sugar found in many foodstuffs. Glucose is used as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
A sweet colourless liquid, glycerol acts as a humectant when added to tobacco, helping to retain moisture in the product. It can also be used as a solvent.
This is a natural gum that acts as a thickening agent, and is used as a binder in some tobacco products.
Humectants are any ingredients added to tobacco to help the product to retain moisture.
A mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose, invert sugar is sweeter than glucose and is used as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
Commonly found in milk products, lactic acid is used in cheese, baked goods and many other foodstuffs. It is used as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
Maximum use (MU)
When we present a complete list of ingredients or flavourings for a specific country, we list a Maximum Use (MU) value for each ingredient by weight (mg) and by percentage (%) of a product. This allows us to provide information about all the ingredients our companies use without compromising any trade secrets. The MU is the maximum amount of each ingredient added to any brand sold in a specific country, but it does not necessarily reflect the actual level of use in any particular product.
Usually obtained from peppermint oil, menthol balances the taste of the tobacco and provides a characteristic minty flavour to the smoke.
During the manufacture of sugar, juice is extracted from sugar cane, and then boiled to promote crystallisation. Molasses is the remaining liquid when the first sugar crystals are removed. It is used as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
Nicotine is not an ingredient we add to any of our products. It is a colourless substance that occurs naturally in tobacco.
Used mainly in cigarettes, this is a special paper wrapper put around the filter to hold it together during manufacture.
This describes the ability of cigarette paper to admit air, which influences the taste of the cigarette and the delivery of tar.
In common with many foodstuffs, preservatives are used to protect some tobacco products from deterioration caused by micro-organisms.
A tasteless, colourless liquid, propylene glycol is found in sesame seeds and mushrooms and used in foodstuffs such as confectionery and cheese. It acts as a solvent and a humectant when added to tobacco.
A paper like material made from tobacco stems and other tobacco that has been chopped and ground down, then reconstituted into sheets. In some products, typically some cigars or cigarillos, this ‘tobacco paper’ is used instead of regular cigarette paper.
This is used to glue the cigarette paper in place around the tobacco.
Snus (Swedish for snuff and it rhymes with 'moose') is a form of pasteurised, finely-ground moist tobacco that comes either loose or in tiny pouches which are placed under the upper lip. Snus contains nicotine in similar quantities to cigarettes.
A substance, such as water, used to dissolve and dilute ingredients.
Found in many edible plants and fruits, sorbitol is a sugar substitute used in many foodstuffs. When added to tobacco, it acts as a humectant, helping to retain moisture in the product.
Found in many plants, especially grapes and tamarind fruits, tartaric acid is used in tobacco processing as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.
The filter and tobacco rod are held together by tipping paper, often with an imitation cork pattern printed on it. This paper may also have holes in it to admit air in 'lower tar' cigarettes.
A hardening agent that helps a cigarette, cigarillo or cigar filter to keep its shape in the packet and as it is being smoked.
Valerian root extract
Derived from a sweet smelling flowering plant, valerian root is added to tobacco products as an ameliorant to balance the flavour of the tobacco.